CROI 2012 Oral Presentation #95 . Probiotic Supplementation of ARV Treatment during SIV Infection of Pigtail Macaques Results in Enhanced GI Tract CD4+ T Cell Frequency and Immunological Function
During progressive HIV/SIV (simian immune defficiency virus in monkeys) infections, damage to the GI tract leads to microbial translocation, which may contribute to chronic immune activation and disease progression.
This study treated chronically SIV-infected pigtail macaques monkeys (PTM) with probiotics (brand name: Culturelle) in combination with ARV treatment, and compared to chronically SIV-infected PTM treated with ARV alone. Combination ARV therapy included 30mg/kg PMPA (a nucleoside that has been extensively used in SIV studies), 30mg/kg emtricitabine (FTC) (once daily, s.c.), and 120mg L812, 50mg L564 (twice daily, oral integrase inhibitors) for an average of 162 days.
The study team found that, compared to PTM treated with ARV alone, animals given probiotics and ARV had enhanced reconstitution of CD4+ T cells in the colon (almost double the CD4 cell counts attained by the ARV alone group) . Furthermore, probiotic treatment decreased the activation of CD4+ T cells in the colon and increased the overall functionality of colon CD4+ T cells as measured by multifunctional cytokine production, with indications of enhanced mucosal immunity.
Although this was a monkey study, the presenter hinted at the possibility of expecting similar results in humans infected with HIV. Since probiotics do not colonize the GI track, they need to be dosed daily or frequently, however.